Difference between revisions of "SHA-1"

From The ECRYPT Hash Function Website
(Collision Attacks)
(Collision Attacks)
Line 103: Line 103:
 
   isbn      = {3-540-33108-5},
 
   isbn      = {3-540-33108-5},
 
   abstract  = {SHA-1 uses a single set of rotation constants within the compression function. However, most other members of the MD4 family of hash functions use multiple sets of rotation constants, i.e. the rotation amounts change with the step being processed. To our knowledge, no design rationales on the choice of rotation constants are given on any of these hash functions. This is the first paper that analyzes rotations in iterated hash functions. We focus on SHA-1-like hash functions and use recent developments in the analysis of these hash functions to evaluate the security implications of using multiple sets of rotation constants in the compression function instead of a single set. Additionally, we give some observations on the set of constants used in SHA-0 and SHA-1.},
 
   abstract  = {SHA-1 uses a single set of rotation constants within the compression function. However, most other members of the MD4 family of hash functions use multiple sets of rotation constants, i.e. the rotation amounts change with the step being processed. To our knowledge, no design rationales on the choice of rotation constants are given on any of these hash functions. This is the first paper that analyzes rotations in iterated hash functions. We focus on SHA-1-like hash functions and use recent developments in the analysis of these hash functions to evaluate the security implications of using multiple sets of rotation constants in the compression function instead of a single set. Additionally, we give some observations on the set of constants used in SHA-0 and SHA-1.},
 +
}
 +
</bibtex>
 +
 +
<bibtex>
 +
@inproceedings{eurocryptBihamCJCLJ05,
 +
  author = {Eli Biham and Rafi Chen and Antoine Joux and Patrick Carribault and Christophe Lemuet and William Jalby},
 +
  title = {Collisions of SHA-0 and Reduced SHA-1},
 +
  booktitle = {EUROCRYPT},
 +
  year = {2005},
 +
  pages = {36-57},
 +
  abstract = {In this paper we describe improvements to the techniques used to cryptanalyze SHA-0 and introduce the first results on SHA-1. The results include a generic multi-block technique that uses near-collisions in order to find collisions, and a four-block collision of SHA-0 found using this technique with complexity 251. Then, extension of this and prior techniques are presented, that allow us to find collisions of reduced versions of SHA-1. We give collisions of variants with up to 40 rounds, and show the complexities of longer variants. These techniques show that collisions up to about 53–58 rounds can still be found faster than by birthday attacks. Part of the results of this paper were given by the first author in an invited talk in SAC 2004, Waterloo, Canada.},
 +
  editor = {Ronald Cramer},
 +
  volume = {3494},
 +
  series = {LNCS},
 +
  publisher = {Springer},
 +
  isbn = {3-540-25910-4},
 +
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11426639_3},
 
}
 
}
 
</bibtex>
 
</bibtex>
Line 115: Line 132:
 
   publisher = {Springer},
 
   publisher = {Springer},
 
   series    = {LNCS},
 
   series    = {LNCS},
 +
  volume    = {3376},
 
   abstract  = {We report on the experiments we performed in order to assess the security of SHA-1 against the attack by Chabaud and Joux [5]. We present some ideas for optimizations of the attack and some properties of the message expansion routine. Finally, we show that for a reduced version of SHA-1, with 53 rounds instead of 80, it is possible to find collisions in less than 2^80 operations.},
 
   abstract  = {We report on the experiments we performed in order to assess the security of SHA-1 against the attack by Chabaud and Joux [5]. We present some ideas for optimizations of the attack and some properties of the message expansion routine. Finally, we show that for a reduced version of SHA-1, with 53 rounds instead of 80, it is possible to find collisions in less than 2^80 operations.},
 
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/b105222}}
 
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/b105222}}

Revision as of 11:21, 11 March 2008

1 Specification

  • digest size: 160 bits
  • max. message length: < 264 bits
  • compression function: 512-bit message block, 160-bit chaining variable
  • Specification: FIPS 180-2 Secure Hash Standard

2 Cryptanalysis

2.1 Best Known Results

The best collision attack on full SHA-1 was published by Wang et al. It has complexity of 269 hash evaluations. The best collision example, a 70-step collision for SHA-1, was published by DeCanniere, Mendel and Rechberger.


2.2 Collision Attacks

Christophe De Canni\`ere, Florian Mendel, Christian Rechberger - Collisions for 70-Step SHA-1: On the Full Cost of Collision Search

Selected Areas in Cryptography 4876:56-73,2007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-77360-3_4
Bibtex
Author : Christophe De Canni\`ere, Florian Mendel, Christian Rechberger
Title : Collisions for 70-Step SHA-1: On the Full Cost of Collision Search
In : Selected Areas in Cryptography -
Address :
Date : 2007

Makoto Sugita, Mitsuru Kawazoe, Ludovic Perret, Hideki Imai - Algebraic Cryptanalysis of 58-Round SHA-1

FSE 4593:349-365,2007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74619-5_22
Bibtex
Author : Makoto Sugita, Mitsuru Kawazoe, Ludovic Perret, Hideki Imai
Title : Algebraic Cryptanalysis of 58-Round SHA-1
In : FSE -
Address :
Date : 2007

Christophe De Canni\`ere, Christian Rechberger - Finding SHA-1 Characteristics: General Results and Applications

ASIACRYPT 4284:1-20,2006
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11935230_1
Bibtex
Author : Christophe De Canni\`ere, Christian Rechberger
Title : Finding SHA-1 Characteristics: General Results and Applications
In : ASIACRYPT -
Address :
Date : 2006

Charanjit S. Jutla, Anindya C. Patthak - Provably Good Codes for Hash Function Design

Selected Areas in Cryptography 4356:376-393,2006
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74462-7_26
Bibtex
Author : Charanjit S. Jutla, Anindya C. Patthak
Title : Provably Good Codes for Hash Function Design
In : Selected Areas in Cryptography -
Address :
Date : 2006

Norbert Pramstaller, Christian Rechberger, Vincent Rijmen - Impact of Rotations in SHA-1 and Related Hash Functions

Selected Areas in Cryptography 3897:261-275,2005
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11693383_18
Bibtex
Author : Norbert Pramstaller, Christian Rechberger, Vincent Rijmen
Title : Impact of Rotations in SHA-1 and Related Hash Functions
In : Selected Areas in Cryptography -
Address :
Date : 2005

Eli Biham, Rafi Chen, Antoine Joux, Patrick Carribault, Christophe Lemuet, William Jalby - Collisions of SHA-0 and Reduced SHA-1

EUROCRYPT 3494:36-57,2005
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11426639_3
Bibtex
Author : Eli Biham, Rafi Chen, Antoine Joux, Patrick Carribault, Christophe Lemuet, William Jalby
Title : Collisions of SHA-0 and Reduced SHA-1
In : EUROCRYPT -
Address :
Date : 2005

Vincent Rijmen, Elisabeth Oswald - Update on SHA-1

CT-RSA 3376:58-71,2005
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/b105222
Bibtex
Author : Vincent Rijmen, Elisabeth Oswald
Title : Update on SHA-1
In : CT-RSA -
Address :
Date : 2005

2.3 Preimage Attacks

  • We are not aware of any articles w.r.t. preimage attacks on SHA-1.

2.4 Others

Florian Mendel, Norbert Pramstaller, Christian Rechberger, Vincent Rijmen - The Impact of Carries on the Complexity of Collision Attacks on SHA-1

FSE 4047:278-292,2006
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11799313_18
Bibtex
Author : Florian Mendel, Norbert Pramstaller, Christian Rechberger, Vincent Rijmen
Title : The Impact of Carries on the Complexity of Collision Attacks on SHA-1
In : FSE -
Address :
Date : 2006

Akashi Satoh - Hardware Architecture and Cost Estimates for Breaking SHA-1

ISC 3650:259-273,2005
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11556992_19
Bibtex
Author : Akashi Satoh
Title : Hardware Architecture and Cost Estimates for Breaking SHA-1
In : ISC -
Address :
Date : 2005